Eight years of EU external aviation policy have produced mixed results. Pillar 1 agreements have indeed largely contributed to restoring the bilateral agreements concluded by the Member States to legal certainty, but some of our key partners still do not accept the principle of EU designation. The agreements with neighbouring countries (Pillar 2) benefit the European low-cost carriers but it is difficult to conclude that they have significant impact on market growth. As for the Open Aviation Area agreements (Pillar 3), only two are applied and they are far from having achieved their main objectives. In this context, the major European network carriers call for a review of this policy.
Source: European Parliament